INCREASING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH BOARD GAME FOR THE EIGHTH GRADERS OF SMP
A. Background of the Study.
Look at the developing science and technology, language has an important rule for human life, by using language the people will express their ideas, emotion, and desires, and it is used as a medium to interact with one another, to fulfil their daily need. English has been the most important language in international communication. The people all over the world speak the language when they meet one another in every international meeting, workshop, or conference. All countries in the world have set the language as one of the compulsory subject studied at school.
English has many functions, one of them as stated in the 2004 curriculum that English is means for the students to develop science, technology, culture and art, and the final objective of teaching and learning process is the students are expected to master the four skills of language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Teaching and learning will be success if they are supported by some factors such as the method that is used in teaching English, completeness of teaching facilitation, interesting media, and condition of school environment.
Indonesia as one of the developing countries has also set its educational curriculum to include English as a foreign language which is studied from junior high school up to the university level. Being successful students are not easy, this fact can be seen mostly at eight grader of MTs NW Majidi, although they have been studying English for more than a year, but they are still unable to use English in interacting with their teacher in the classroom.
Speaking is important for them to practice their capability and their understanding, how to send idea, and how to spell word well; in this case the students’ motivation and interest are very needed to make the process of their understanding more easily.
Because of the material of English subject is very variety, so the teachers are obligated to choose the suitable approach, strategy, and method in order to achieve the teaching purposes easily, and the media will make the students to be more motivated to study. The teacher who is able to present the material easily will be students’ idol. The teacher can use some methods in teaching learning process to help the students’ understanding about the material that is explained. In applying method, the teachers have to prepare many things like; teaching material, classroom management, and many other aspects because using inappropriate technique can make the students get difficulties in understanding the teacher’s explanation and it means that the teacher may be failed in teaching them.
To make the students have strong interest in teaching and learning process especially in learning speaking, the teacher should take the best approach, method, and strategies. Then, the teacher can use media in teaching of English language, method are used to help the students for speaking to make interaction between the teacher and students. Furthermore, the teacher has to prepare the interested aids before teaching learning process done. In this case, the researcher used board game as method in teaching learning processes.
The teacher can use board game as method in teaching and learning processes. According to (Hornby; 1995, p. 486) game is an activity that you do to have some fun. Board game can be defined as something or an instrument that is used to attract students’ motivation to follow the teaching and learning process because board game can make the students more focus in learning, because they do not feel that they are forced to learn. They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Board game can be method that will give many advantages for teacher and the students either.
Method must be able to increase the students’ motivation in learning English, especially in speaking English. And, method has to be able to manipulate, see able, listenable, and readable. At last the teacher hopes that method can motivate his students to speak English to communicate their need especially in the classroom and in their daily need in general.
Board game as a method of intertwinement can build up the students’ motivation and reinforce any language skill as speaking and listening. The students playing board game in the classroom only for language learning and help them to increase their speaking skill which they can apply it outside of the classroom.
Communication is one of the implementation of language function in society as a means of carrying out the affairs. Students are not easy to speak English fluently if they only study at school generally, they will get it in real life listening to the native speaker. But, if the school has certain rule and has good condition of school environment, so the students can speak English as well.
Speaking is one of four language skills, which is basic function of language as communication instrument. Students who study at the school which use certain language will be a good speaker, different from students who study at the other school. They will get difficulties in using English to speak each other; it is caused by condition of school environment and media that is used in teaching them.
B. Focus of the Study
Based on the background of the study above, this study is limited to find out the increasing of students’ speaking ability through board game. The subject of the study is the eighth graders of MTs NW Majidi in the school year 2012/2013.
C. Statement of the Problem
Based on the background above, the problem can be formulated as follows: “How can board game increase the students’ speaking ability at the eighth graders of MTs NW Majidi in the school year 2012/2013?’’
D. Purpose of the Study
This study is aimed at finding out the role of board game in increasing students’ speaking ability for the eighth graders of MTs NW Majidi in the school year 2012/2013.
E. Significances of the Study
The results of this study are expected to give both theoretical and practical benefits as follows:
The result of this study is expected to find out strategy of increasing students’ speaking ability through board game.
1) Teacher can use the material easier and she/he will have a new method to teach speaking by using board game.
2) The teacher can make this method to be an interesting method in other the students easy to understand in learning english speaking.
1) The students will be easy to understand about how to say something.
2) It will improve the student’s ability in speaking.
1) Can use the result of this study to be reference.
2) Can search the same variable.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND ATION HYPOTHESIS
A. Speaking Ability
In this chapter will discuss about the nature of speaking, the meaning of speaking, the function of speaking, the aspect of speaking ability, and macro and micro skill of speaking ability.
1. The Nature of Speaking Ability
Brown (in Islamiyah, 2007, p. 14) states that speaking is a productive skill that can be directly and empirically observed, those observations are invariably collared by the accuracy and fluency. While, he also states that speaking is the product of creative construction of linguistic strings, the speakers make choices of lexicon, structure, and discourse.
Poerdarminta (in Islamiyah, 2007, p. 14) states that the classical meaning of speaking is the ability to talk, and to speak. The main purpose of speaking is to send the message for the other one or to be able to communicate about something in language and understood by someone who becomes a listener.
Tarigan (in Islamiyah, 2007, p. 14) states that speaking is one of the language skills in oral form to express the speakers’ ideas to everybody else. While, speaking is the informal interchange of thought and information by spoken words.
2. The Meaning of Speaking Ability.
Speaking ability consists of two words are speaking and ability. To avoid misunderstanding about the meaning of speaking ability, it will clarify one by one. According to Poerwadarminta (1985, p. 109). It is also stated by Hornby (1990, p. 51) that ability’s potential capacity of power to do something physically or mentally. Those description may concluded that ability is capability of human which identical with ability. According to Djiwandono (in Munir, 2005, p. 16) speaking is the activity to express thought and feeling orally.
Speaking is an articulation of sound to express thought. Tarigan (1990, p.15), says that speaking is the capability in pronouncing sound or word to express or convey though, idea or feeling” opinion and wish. Another expert says that speaking is talk or speaks (Haryanto in Sunardi, 2004, p. 13). If both speaking and ability are combined, so it means a capability to utter the articulation of sound to express or to deliver thought, opinion and wish to the other person.
3. The Function of Speaking Ability
Brown and Yule in Fauzi (2012, p. 4) also describe a useful distinction between two basic language function. These are the transactional function, which is primarily concerned with the transfer of information, and the interactional function, in which the primary purpose of speech is the maintenance of social relationship.
Another basic distinction when considering the development of speaking ability is between monologue and dialogue. They ability to give an uninterrupted oral presentation is very clear from interacting one people and another speakers for transactional and intersectional purpose, while, all native speakers can and do use language interaction, not all native speaker have the ability to be extempore on a given subject to group of listeners. Furthermore, Brown and Yule in Fauzi (2012, p. 4) suggest that most language teaching is concerned with developing skills in short intersectional exchanges in which the learner is only required to make one or two utterance at a time.
Based on the above statement, Bygate in Fauzi (2012, p. 5) distinguishes that “between motor-perceptive skill, which are concerned with correctly using the sound and structures of language, and interactional skill, which involves motor perceptive skill for the purpose of communication” motor perceptive skill are developed in the language classroom through activities such as model dialogues, patterns practice, oral drills and so on, until relatively recently, it was assumed that the mastery of motor perceptive skill was that needed all one, in order to communicated successfully.
4. The Aspect of Speaking Ability
Darmodihardjo in Fauzi (2012, p. 7) states about the aspects of speaking that is “the requirements of effective speaking such as: intonation, phonetic transcription and environment expression”
The opinion above describes that, to able communicate effectively, it must be considered that situation of sound utterance, pronunciation and physical. On the other hand, Valetto in Fauzi (2012, p. 7) says that “The elements which are in speaking cover phonetic transcription, grammar, vocabulary, the effective and speaking”
Meanwhile, Haris in Fauzi (2012, p. 7) clarifies as follows:
“Like writing speaking is complex skill requiring the simultaneous use of number of the different abilities which often developed of different rates either four of five components are generally recognized in analyze of the speak process: (a) pronunciation concluding the segmental features vowel, and consonants, vocabulary, stress and intonation pattern the flow speech, (b) grammar, (c) vocabulary, (d) fluency (the case and speed of the flow speech). The solve probably be added, (e) comprehension for oral communication certainly requires a subject the response to speak as well as imitation.
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that the aspects of the speaking ability in this research are: (a) pronunciation competence, (b) grammatical ability, (c) vocabulary mastery, (d) the fluently of speaking, and (e) the understanding of the topic of speaking.
5. Macro and Micro Skill of Speaking Ability
a) Macro Skills of Speaking
(Sharma, 2010, P. 5). Here are the skills that should be implemented in speaking activities:
- Appropriately accomplish communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals.
- Use appropriate styles, registers, implicative, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversion rules, floor keeping and yielding, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.
- Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as focal and peripheral ideas, events and feeling, new information and given information, generalisation and exemplification.
- Convey facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language.
- Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.
b) Micro Skill of Speaking
Here are some of the micro skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:
B. Board Game
This chapter discuses about the meaning of board game, the concept of board game, the advantages of board game, the disadvantages of board game, and teaching speaking by using board game.
1. The Meaning of Board Game.
To increase the speaking skill we need method to be used. One of them is game. The definition of game is an activity that you do to have some fun (Hornby, 1995, p. 486). Therefore, board game can be defined as something or an instrument that is used to attract students’ motivation to follow the teaching and learning process because board game can make the students more focus in learning, because they do not feel that they are forced to learn. They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Board game can be method that will give many advantages for teacher and the students either. Buckby (1994, P. 82) The useful of board game are attract the students to learn English because it is fun and make them want to have experiment, discover and interact with their environment are:
a) Board game adds variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivation factor. Board game can provide this stimulus. Buckby (1994, P. 82).
b) The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the target language to life. Buckby (1994, P. 82).the board game makes the reason for speaking plausible even to reluctant children.
c) Through playing board game, students can learn English they way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.
d) Even shy students can participate positively.
e) Make your classroom a lively place through the use of attractive wall displays, displays of pupils’ work, etc. language classroom is noisy with the language (English) is good because it will make the classroom more live in English (practice)
f) Motivate pupils to want to learn English by using interesting and enjoyable learning activities. E.g., project work, board game, drama. It means learning by playing.
g) Create warm and happy atmosphere where teacher and pupil enjoy working together. Teacher arranges good atmosphere in classroom and make the students interested.
h) Help pupils to develop personal reasons for learning English. For example by encouraging out-of –school class activities, e.g. pen friends, project, reading story books.
i) Make learning English enjoyable and fun-remember you are influencing their attitude to language learning. (Lower as affective filter). It means teacher has to try in order to students are having fun in learning (learning by playing). Remember teacher is influencing their attitude to language learning
j) Do not worry about mistakes. Be encouraging – make sure children feel comfortable, and not afraid to take part. It means teacher does not blame directly to students, teacher must give support to students while repair their mistakes.
k) Use a lot of gestures, actions, pictures to demonstrate what you mean. It means teacher has to try to accompany her explanation with method in order to students understand easily. Don’t force the students to use the language directly, just give them examples by gestures
l) Talk a lot to them in English, especially about things they can see. Teacher must teach them by using English, especially about anything in their surroundings.
m) Play board game, singsongs, say rhymes and chants together. It means teacher has skills in playing board game, singsong etc to make them enjoy and interest in learning.
n) Tell simple theories in English, using pictures, acting with different voices.
o) Do not worry when they use their mother tongue. You can answer a mother tongue question in English, and sometimes recast in English what they say in their mother tongue. It means if the students use their mother tongue, the teacher translate to English and repeat again, again and again to make them always remember what teacher means.
p) Constantly recycle new language but do not be afraid to add new things or to use words they will not know. Teacher gives new language while remember the last topic.
q) Plan lesson with varied activities, some quiet, some noisy, some sitting, some standing and moving, it means teacher must demonstrate his teaching with several activities (moiling teaching), sometimes teacher sit, stand up in front of or behind the students.
2. The Concept of Board Game
Hammond (2011, P. 1). While the concept of a board game is not new, the playing of board games is timeless. Many of us enjoy playing a good board game now and then. Perhaps some of us have a regular "game night." Whether you go for the traditional Monopoly or Yates or prefer more unique games like Gator Golf and Bolkus, board games can be very entertaining. A lot of companies are making educational board games that teach things such as adding or phonics. While these are obviously educational, any type of board game can teach kids many important concepts.
This article will address 5 important concepts that playing board games can teach children. 1. Taking Turns and Having Patience, 2. Playing Fair, 3. Reasoning and Strategy Skills, 4. Good Sportsmanship, 5. Friendships and Working Together.
- Taking Turns and Having Patience: In board games, kids are taught to wait for their turn. Sometimes this can be hard as kids tend to get anxious. However, as this skill is practiced, it will get easier for them in board games and in playing with friends and siblings in general.
- Playing Fair: It is so easy for kids to get upset when they lose a turn or things don't go the way they planned, but it is important for them to learn that cheating is not fair. In a way it follows the golden rule because they wouldn't want someone else to cheat so they need to not cheat. Learning this concept will help kids as they grow older and have different disappointments when things don't turn out as planned. It will also teach them to be honest in school and, later on, the workplace.
- Reasoning and Strategy Skills: Playing board games will help kids reason and strategize about the best way to "play their cards" to their best advantage. This is an important concept in making everyday life decisions throughout.
- Good Sportsmanship: Many kids get so worked up about having to win the game and boast if they do. Then if they don't win they may be bitter or say hurtful things. Kids need to know that having fun is the most important part of playing the game and to be humble and have good sportsmanship no matter who wins. Learning this concept can help them in any friendships they have as well as to be happy about others achievements.
3. The Advantages of Board Game
Carly (2010, P. 21). There are many advantages of using board game in the classroom they are:
1. They are motivating and challenging.
2. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort.
3. Board game helps students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4. Board game provides language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.
7. Speaking skill board game bring real world context into the classroom, and increase students’ use of English in a flexible, meaningful and communicative way.
8. Board games usually involve friendly competition and they keep students interested in learning the language.
9. Board game can help them (children) learn and hang on to new words more easily.
The reasons of the writer in choosing board game as educational method for teaching speaking to the children are:
1. Board game makes learning fun so your class and children are willing participants and not just there because they have to be.
2. Playing a game has a purpose to it, an outcome, and in order to play students have to say things – they have a reason to communicate rather than just repeat things back mindlessly. Therefore, they want to know and learn more.
3. Students get to use the language all the time during the board game
4. They involve a lot of repetition, and repetition is the mother of skill, it can be boring, but thanks to this board game, it is fun.
5. How do you expect your class or children to apply speaking skill if they never use it? Repetition is the mother of skill.
6. The board game lends themselves perfectly to quick bursts of revision. Using some of the board game, you can revise a massive amount of speaking skill and grammar in a few minutes.
7. If you use board game to revise two or three topics every lesson, as well as teach the new language, imagine how well your kids will do at exam time, and how proud you will feel.
8. Children have a short attention span (even more so these days with the style and pace of the method, and computer board game), so injecting lively varied board game into your classes to practice the language you are teaching will keep your children alert and enjoying themselves
9. The philosophy of encouragement incorporated into this board game allows all students, including the less good ones, to gain in confidence. Usually this doesn't just mean they get better at your subject, but in all subjects. This makes everybody, including you, more motivated and optimistic, and you can really make a difference by helping your pupils have more self-esteem so they succeed in all areas of life.
10. You do not need many materials to play these board game (in some cases you need only your regular black board or classroom props). Once you have used the board game once you will need virtually no preparation time at all!
11. You will be able to give stimulating fun classes while keeping your evenings free for yourself and your own hobbies, family and friends, based on the above description, can be therefore it can be summarized that:
a) Board games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. In this case, a game should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do. Board game ought to be at the heart of teaching (foreign) languages.
b) Board game can be used at all stages of the lesson. But teachers must be sure that board game provided, are suitable and carefully selected by the teachers.
c) Before playing a game teachers should give attention to the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings.
4. The Disadvantages of Board Game
Dewar (2009, p. 15). There are many disadvantages of using board game in the classroom:
1. Most people play with house rules (ex. money under free parking, not using the auctions, etc) that cause the game to last much longer than it should.
2. Player elimination. Players can get knocked out of the game early. Who wants to watch other people play a game?
3. Too dependent on luck. Once all the properties are bought & traded, the game is just rolling the dice until everybody goes bankrupt.
4. Doesn't scale well to the number of players. 4 players seem to be ideal.
5. Players takes too long and 2 players is completely pointless (without trades, it's all luck).
6. The game is almost 100 years old. Much better designed games have been released since then (Acquire, Power Grid, Settlers of Catan, Railroad Tycoon).
Teaching Speaking By Using Board Game
One of game in teaching speaking English is Board Game. The effort of the linguist has strong basic because the learner entertained with their everyday life, give chances to the student to more creatively because Board Game as method in teaching speaking English is very effective and more interested because the students will be memorized the vocabulary and, the enjoying the picture in the board. So that using Board Game in teaching speaking will give achievement acquiring English.
Board Game can increase motivation to learn the English for the students. They also have to add advantage of being memorable the words much less likely that the students will forget the words, and therefore the language practice in it, whereas language practice in even well constructed drill is usually very quickly forgotten and finally, Board Game which helps to bring the students memorize more words.
The teachers begin to explain the materials, the teachers use Board Game in order to make the students have more interests, attention and understand about the material. There are five steps that can be applied when the teacher use Board Game: (1) take pictures in front of the class (2 try to attract the students’ understanding about Board Game (3) the teachers begin to explain what does the Board Game talk about; (4) in order to know the achievement of the students, the teachers ask one of the students to repeat again what does the teachers do before and, (5) after the teachers feel that all the students have understood of the material, the teacher continue to another topic.
C. Relevant Study
The studies that have relevant with this study are: first this study which has relevance with this research was conducted by Nugroho Noto Susanto (2007 / 2008) on the Contribution of Speaking Practice with The Native Speaker Toward Students’ Speaking Capability: A Case Study at Second Year of SMAN 7 Mataram in Academic Year of 2007 / 2008.
The problem of his study, those were: What Contributions can the Native Speaker Provide to the Students’ Speaking Capability through Study Tour Program in the Second Year Students of SMAN 7 Mataram?
The researcher used in his study was Experimental design in which his divided the sample into two groups that is Experimental group and Control group with a test formula and the result of his research showed that the mean scores of critical value test equals to 2.851, this critical value is higher than that of degrees of freedom 400-60 at confidence level 0.05 (95 %) with 1.67 and at confidence level 0.01 (99 %) equal to 2.39.
Furthermore, the difference of his research can be seen on the design used. He used Experimental Design and the Present researcher used class room action research. Meanwhile, the similarity of this research is the reseacher same discuses about Speaking Ability.
Second. Nurul Hidayah (2008/2009) on the Effect of English Speaking Club (ESC) towards the Students’ Speaking Ability for the Second Year Students of SMA NW Pancor in the School Year of 2008/2009.
The problem of her study, those were: Does the of English Speaking Club (ESC) towards the Students’ Speaking Ability for the Second Year of SMA NW Pancor in the School Year of 2008-2009? To what extent English Speaking Club (ESC) as the best program to optimize Teaching Speaking Ability for the second year of SMA NW Pancor in the school year 2008/2009.
The research used in her study was Quantitative design by using Ex-post Facto Research. The result of his study shown in testing the hypothesis the researcher used t-test 3.55 on significance level 0.05 (df=38) was 0.320 (3.55>0.320) it means that Ha (Alternative Hypothesis) was accepted.
Furthermore, the differences of her research can be seen on the design used. She used Quantitative design by using Ex-Post Facto and the Present researcher used class room action research. Meanwhile, the similarity of this research is the researcher the method in teaching and learning process.
D. Theoretical Framework
Based on the relevant studies result can be proposed the theoretical framework of the research, that may used as a basic of hypothesis formulation and to comprehend the inter variable relation.
Speaking is one of language component that is function to express feeling, opinion, ideas, and emotion. One of strategy to increase speaking is discussion. By board game is one method in teaching speaking which encourage students to speak as much as possible.
According to (Hornby, 1995, p. 486). The definition of game is an activity that you do to have some fun. Therefore, board game can be defined as something or an instrument that is used to attract students’ motivation to follow the teaching and learning process because board game can make the students more focus in learning, because they do not feel that they are forced to learn. They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Board game can be method that will give many advantages for teacher and the students either.
Based on the statement above, board game is as method may help the students in learning English especially in speaking ability. Likewise, the writer wants to investigate increasing students’ speaking ability through board game.
E. Action Hypothesis
The hypothesis of the result study is formulated as follows:” the implementation of board game can increase students’ ability in speaking for the eighth graders of MTs NW Majidi in the school year 2012 / 2013.
A. Research Design
The present researcher categorized into a classroom action research. Classroom action research design to help a teacher to find out what is happening in his or her classroom, and to use that information to make the wise decisions for the future. The approach used in the classroom action research can be qualitative or quantitative, descriptive or experimental. According to Kurt Lewin (in suharsimi, 2002), there are four components of action research, they are, planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Action research is categorized, as qualitative research although the data collect can be in a form of quantitative. Meanwhile, Kemmis (in suharsimi, 2002, p. 84). States that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry under taken by participants in a social (including education) situation in order to improve the rationality and of (a), their own social or educational practices justice, (b) their understanding of their practice, and (c) situations on which practice are carried out. Because this study is an action research, than this study focuses on practical, not statistical significance and present raw data
Acting & Observing
Acting & Observing
Research is design as the attempt to plan and de term ne all of the possibilities and the material that be need in a qualitative research. Research design is used in this research is the classroom action research. According to suharsimi, (2002, p. 82) that action research is a solving problem strategy which is use the real action in form of innovative development process in detecting and solving problem.
The procedure of the classroom action research consists of cycles. The cycle is administrated based on the progress being achieved. To identify the students’ ability in English pronunciation, the students were given diagnostic test functioning as initial evaluation. This initial observation is conducted in order to determine appropriate action in increasing English. Form evaluation and the observation, it is determine in the reflection that to increase students English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the narrative text.
In classroom action research design, there are four components that will be done, there are planning, action, observing and reflecting (Lewin in suharsimi 2002, p. 83), in the same page, Kammis and Mc Teggart united the second and third component, those are acting and observing. Then the components show cycles or the ongoing activities that can be seen in this component below:
Before beginning the first cycle, however at the very beginning step as the preliminary, a diagnostic evaluation was done to investigate the degree of the students’ English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the narrative text. It is done by applying a pre-test to the students. The result of pre-test is telling the researcher how far the students’ ability.
The details of the research planning can be describe as follows; before implementing the determined action, the teacher will prepare all need and supportive material as well as the steps applied. They are:
a. Making the lesson plan i, e, the step of presenting the teacher material based on the there-phase technique and the activity as done by the students.
b. Preparing all facilities and supportive material in presenting the teaching materials, such as; English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the narrative text.
c. Designing a test to find out the increase implementation of English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the narrative text.
The research will be using analytic scoring rubric to score students work. The students can be at “pass” level if their score have achieved equal or more that 6 of the range that lays from 0 to 10. The students result will be analyzed using following formula.
The students score =
In implementing the action the research is assisted by his collaborator the research acted as the teacher who is taught how the students’ increases English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the narrative text.
The main stops in the students and learning activated were designed as follows;
1) The teacher greets the students and checks the students’ attendance.
2) The teacher asking for the students’ attention by giving some questions about their last week activities.
3) The teacher tells the students about the objective of the lesson.
1) The teacher introduces some pronunciation in peaking ability to the students’.
2) The teacher explanation how the way of speaking easily.
3) The teacher asks the students in difficulties to speaking easily.
1) The teacher makes reflection on the students’ activities.
2) Distributed the students test.
3) Check the students’ works.
Observing the action is the process of recording and gathering all relevant data about any aspects that was happening during the teaching and learning process. In classroom action research, the observation is focus on collecting what the data relating with the treatment activity this observation took an important role in this research since what happens within the process of treatment may influence the result of this research.
Reflection is an activity to think what is has been done, how the result, and what is has not been completely done. The result of this reflection will become the standard of determining the following steps until the objectives of the research were achieved. The result of reflection may show either the action is successful or not, then follow up can be plan after, if the reflection result tells the action is successful, the cycle is over, but if is not, the next cycle must be plan with is any improvement.
B. Setting of the Study
The setting of the study refers to the place and time to conducting the study. This study will be conducted at the first semester of the eighth graders of MTs NW Majidi in the school year 2012 / 2013. The researcher did classroom action research during the months (October to November) in the school year of 2012/2013. The following time table of the research was listed in detail to Table 3.1.
Making lesson plan
Teaching and learning
Evaluation and reflection
C. Subject of the Study
The subject of the study is all students of the eighth graders of MTs NW Majidi in the school year of 2012/2013. The number of the students consists of 3 classes, that are VIIIA which consists of 27 students, VIIIB which consists of 28 students, and VIIC which consists of 25 students, So, the number of subject is 80 students. The present researcher will take VIIA as a subject of the study.
D. Data Collection
1. Performance Indicator
The action as well as the research carried out can be said to be successful when the learning achievement of class VIIA of MTs NW Majidi in the school year of 2012/2013 is at least 70 individually and 80% classically. The percentage is decided based on the criteria of mastery learning set in the school. It can be said that if a student get 70 of learning achievement, he or she reaches the mastery learning. Then, if 80% of the students in the class get 70, means that, the class reaches the mastery learning and the researcher will not go to the next cycle, it is based on the action planned above.
2. Technique of Data Collection
A researcher will be used many kinds of data collection like questioner, interview, or test. It will be noted, that all methods of data collection should be objective. The kinds of data that use in classroom action research are quantitative data:
In this case, the researches use only the result of the increasing students’ speaking ability through board game.
In this study, the instruments used were (1) first evaluation test, (2) final test, and (3) observation paper.
1) First evaluation test
This evaluation was done to know the students’ basic ability in understanding the definition and the characteristics of narrative text.
2) The final test
This test was given in the form of a jumbled sentences game which was arranged using certain rules. Maximum score was 100 and minimum score was zero if there was no correct answer. It was done by all students in which they were divided into six groups.
3) Observation paper
Observation paper was an observation device that consisted of names of subjects and factors that were observed. In this study, it was used to obtain the data of the learning process.
E. Data Analysis
After the data are collected then the data are classified again to identification. The result of identification of the data is to classified based on students ability in speaking. To analysis the data through the interview method and observation is that using descriptive methods, In this case, the writer used the observation, interview and speech test as the technique to analysis the data.
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